Tuesday, June 18, 2019

What is the element of space in interior design

What is the element of space in interior design? Space is the distance or area within or around elements. Space in every design, both positive and negative areas are important factors. Space is the foundation of an interior and is a fundamental concept to understand, thereby having a full grasp and command of space you are now best equipped to take on what is available to you.

The available space can’t be changed easily however a smart designer may have the luxury of doing so but most of the time will just have to work within the physical boundaries of the room. 

What is the element of space in interior design
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Two major elements of space design

Space is one of the 6 elements of interior design. Space can be divided into two categories: positive and negative space. I perfect example of this is the game of soccer where the play is always made into an open or negative space. Soccer can be viewed as a battle between two teams trying to use space and time to maximum effect. To understand these concepts, and how they affect all other factors in the game, is to understand football and how to effectively manage space. The object of the game is to get the ball into this space for the attacking team to move forward.

Positive space is space that contains objects, while negative space is open or empty space. Empty space includes any space between objects. A good designer will strike the perfect balance between a room's negative and positive spaces to avoid overcrowding or to avoid to much empty space.

Positive and negative space work together to create a visual sense of comfort and harmony while allowing a space's interior design to truly shine.

Each interior design project begins with an assessment of the room's functional deficiencies and how the elements can be manipulated to better fit the people living there. The space planning goal is to create efficiency.

Space and style

Different design styles will lend themselves to different space uses. For example, a minimalist design will have much more negative space than your average design. No matter what your design, how you use and balance the space available can be the difference between nailing the design or not.

Negative space is one of the simplest ways to make a huge impact on a room's look and feel.

Functional elements and space design

Functional elements and space design
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Functional elements such as furniture and lighting are your first priority when evaluating a room, right? These elements form the basis of your design, so start with the essential elements before you add or subtract other design accessories. Does the room require a lot or very little furniture? This will have an impact on what other pieces you invest in.

Space design for traffic paths

Negative space is needed for traffic paths. 
A good idea when looking at a room and assessing space is to first analyze travel paths crossing the room. To get from point A to point B you are going to need to cross the room. If there is one entry in the room then this makes the job much easier due to there will be no demanding travel paths across the room.

However, if there is another door at the other end of the room then there will need to be a travel path through the room to get to the other door on the other side of the room. In this situation, the room is then effective cut in half by the need to have a travel path crossing the room to get to the other door.

Travel paths are necessary and will limit what you can do with the space due to you either must get very creative with the travel path or somehow creatively accommodate it in your design plans. Most of the time it's going to be hard to not make the travel path the shortest distance crossing the room. It's just unnatural.

Interior room with multiple entries and exits can easy chop up space and leave you with very little actual space to use. Just imagine a large living room with for example with multiple doors on all different sides of the room. The room is so chopped up due to travel paths it becomes not usable. It becomes a glorified hallway. In this case, it might be necessary to creatively direct a path by positioning furniture in strategic spots in the room. Try to make the paths as direct as possible but direct traffic to create usable space.

Consideration of the scale and size of the furniture and objects placed in a room is also crucial, as this can be used to make the space appear larger or smaller given the desired result. A tall object like a book case can give the illusion of height.

If a wall contains dominant art pieces and windows, a window treatment can sometimes be redundant. Leaving unadorned windows allows both art and natural light to stand out.

Lines and space

Lines and space
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Horizontal lines, created by tables and other surfaces, provide a sense of stability, formality and efficiency. Interior designers highlight horizontal lines to make a room appear wider and longer and draw the eye to a focal point. A perfect example is floor patterns. To make a room look longer the flooring would be running a certain way as to give the illusion of long lines flowing into the room and projecting more space.

Vertical lines created by windows and doors
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Vertical lines, created by windows and doors, evoke feelings of freedom and more space. On a functional level, accentuating vertical lines often give the illusion that a room is much larger or taller than it really it. This approach is often suitable for use in dining rooms where there will be many people, entrances which are often small and narrow and offices. Vertical lines should be wisely incorporated so as not to over do it.

Dynamic lines found in stairs
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And then there are dynamic lines which are diagonal, zigzag, curved lines or crazy all over the place. Many such lines that are dynamic can be found in stairs. Dynamic lines are associated with movement. Dynamic lines capture our attention by stimulating the eye. However, too many dynamic lines can be distracting and can easily overpower you and be too distracting and uncomfortable.

Repeating shapes within a space establishes visual harmony that is pleasing to the eye.

Ideally, you want to strike a balance with the incorporation of different lines. This is typically done by selecting one dominant feature line in accordance with the brief of the client and the desired feeling they wish to convey in space.

Light and space

Lighting has an impact on space
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Lighting has an impact on space. Rooms that are dimly lit or with poor lighting are going to look smaller than they actually are. To make the illusion of a larger space just add more light. For example, try taking an average size bathroom and painting all the walls a dark color. Now the room appears to be very tiny and almost claustrophobic. Take the same room and now paint the walls a light color and add great lighting. Now the room appears so much bigger but as we know is actually the same size.

Lighter colors will make your room feel larger
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Lighter colors will make your room feel lighter. Even so, many colors absorb light, no matter how light it may be. Choose a light color that reflects, not absorbs, light. Add warmth to rich neutrals such as espresso brown, light gray, warm rust colors, and a lighter tan. Add color to your room by painting your ceiling or adjusting a different color; black or dark trim, light blue ceiling or warm colored flooring. 

Natural lighting is the best to have. However many times we find dark furniture absorbing a lot of the natural light. Or dark colored walls or dark flooring and even heavy window treatments covering and blocking natural lighting. Thick window treatments and curtains often absorb valuable natural light. Removing heavy or dark curtains will instantly add light to your dark rooms and make the room feel so much bigger. Light colors and light weight fabrics both help preserve natural light. You can often get great results by removing some of the offending items and then return them to see if they make a difference.

Neutrals, whites and tan paint colors are also versatile color schemes. They are the perfect contrast if you have dark wooden floors, doors or heavy wooden furniture.

If you have a smaller room try using sheer, light fabrics if you need curtains for privacy. Darker colored fabrics are absorbing light. If you prefer a flush, minimalist look, then you might consider using shutters. They control the amount of natural light in your room and protect your privacy. 

The brighter the surfaces that you can add to the rooms, the lighter the room will reflect.

Your decorating strategy should include the use of objects such as chandeliers, brass lighting, gold door knobs or silver photo frames, brass candlesticks, mirrors or acrylic-clear furniture. They help bounce your room's light. Large wall mirrors are a perfect decorative touch to add more light.

However there are rooms where you specifically want to have a dark room. For example, a bedroom. Dramatic dark bedrooms are great for relaxing and sleeping in. Dark walls, bedding, heavy dark wood floors and dark accents create a cozy sleepy, relaxing effect that is wonderful to come home to after a long hard day at work. But you should think about balancing the dark with lighter colors. For example, try adding light colored bed linen, cushions and rugs. this will give a great balanced look to your room.

Dramatic dark bedroom with contrasting colors
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With contrasting light colored throw pillows, sheeting and bedding in soft lighter colors like butter yellow or off white, with dark walls in a bedroom can easily create a good balance between light and dark. This adds to creating a relaxing atmosphere in dark rooms. Balance the large areas of dark space with equally large areas of lighter finishes and accessories is the key to a great design.

If your room has very little natural light, but you love dark walls, use light colors on your ceiling, floors or baseboards and trims to lighten your room.

Dark colors are rich and dramatic. They make a great addition to your decor if you want to add character to a boring room. But first consider the amount of natural light in your room if you want to experiment with darker colors. Of course the more windows and doors in your room, the darker the color of the walls you can go.

Space design conclusion

Most of the time the available space can not be changed and you will have to work within the physical boundaries of what you have. Make sure to use positive and negative space equally well. They work together to create a visual sense of comfort and harmony while allowing a space's interior to really shine. Negative space is one of the simplest ways to make a huge impact on a room's look and feel but remember negative space is often used for traffic paths.

If a wall contains dominant art pieces and windows, a window treatment can sometimes be redundant. You don't' always need to have elaborate window treatments. To leave unadorned windows alone allows both art and natural light to shine through thus making the room feel so much bigger. the use of repeating shapes within a space establishes visual harmony that is very pleasing to the eye. Neutral colors like, whites and tans are also very versatile color schemes. They are the perfect contrast if you have dark flooring, doors or dark colored furniture.

In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang is a concept of dualism in ancient Chinese philosophy, describing how apparently opposite or opposite forces can actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they can give rise to each other as they interrelate with each other.

 yin and yang
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To add more light use  bright surfaces that you can add to the rooms. For example, by using bright surfaces the lighter the room will feel. If your room has very little natural light, or you just want a dark room because you love dark walls, be sure to use light colors on your ceiling, floors or baseboards and trims to lighten your room. And finally remember the best design always have a good balance between the yin and yang!

I would love to read your thoughts. What worked for you and what didn't?

Please comment below. Thanks 

What are the 6 principles of interior design

What are the 6 principles of interior design? The 6 fundamental principles of design which are: 
  1. balance
  2. proximity
  3. alignment
  4. repetition
  5. contrast
  6. space
6 Principles of interior design
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To sum up here is the short answer: The elements and principles of design are the building blocks. The design elements constitute the things that constitute a design. The design principles are what we do to those elements.

What are the elements of design

  1. COLOR: Color reflects light from objects. Color's three main hues are red, green, and blue. In addition color has intensity or what is commonly know as how bright and how dull it is.
  2.  LINE: Which are linear marks made from a pen, brush, or with the help of a straight edge when two forms meet.
  3.  SHAPE: Is a form. It's a geometric (free forming forms or natural forms) or organic self defined area. A positive form creates a negative form automatically.
  4.  DIRECTION: Is considered all lines have a horizontal, vertical or oblique direction. Horizontal offers calmness, stability and peace. Vertical gives a sense of equilibrium, formality and alertness.
  5.  SIZE: Is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one form and the other. Oblique suggests movement and action.
  6. TEXTURE: Is the surface quality of the form is a texture, rough, smooth, hard and soft gloss.

What are the 6 principles of design explained

  1. BALANCE: Is referring to the design balance which is similar to physical equilibrium. By a small form near the edge, a large shape near the center can be balanced. Equilibrium offers stability and design structure. It is the weight of the elements that is distributed in the design.
  2. PROXIMITY: Is the nearness creates a connection between elements. It gives us a focus. Nearness does not imply the need to place elements together, it means that they should in some ways be connected visually.
  3. ALIGNMENT: Allows us to organize order. The alignment of elements allows them to establish a visual link.
  4. REPETITION: Repetition enhances the design by linking each element together. It helps build consistency and association. Repetition can create an organized movement analogous to a rhythm.
  5. CONTRAST: The opposite color of the color wheel, or light versus dark values, and the other direction, like horizontal versus vertical, is the opposite of opposing elements. Contrast enables us to highlight or emphasize key design elements.
  6. SPACE: The final frontier, sorry that's from Start Trek, never mind. Space is the distance or area within or around elements. Space in every design, both positive and negative areas are important factors.
symmetrical balance principles of design
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Traditional interior design has a symmetrical balance, a technique that seeks to reflect one another on both sides of the room. Asymmetry is a deviation from symmetrical balance in which the room has different design and arrangement, but still has the same visual weight.

Radial symmetry of design from the 6 fundamental principles of design
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Radial symmetry is an unconventional approach towards the balance principle where the central point is either an arch or a part of the spiral pattern.

Interior design large wall art
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The size relationship between the fixtures and the room should mesh well to achieve the desired design output, such as making the room appear larger and making the room appear smaller.

Repetition in interior design
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Repetition is a classic rhythm principle technique that uses the same aesthetic elements, such as maintaining the fixture or the characteristics and quality of the design. Progression assembles aesthetic elements in an escalating fashion, such as arranging fixtures from the smallest to the largest or arranging the hue of your wallpaper from the lightest to the darkest.

Contrast elements interior design
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Contrast also helps to avoid a monotonous look of your design. Contrasted colors such as black and white or contrasting forms such as circles and squares are among the well-known techniques used in contrast. Modern interior designers are very much into using color contrast, where colors can be somewhat festive and try to add light and relaxing tones.

The main visual attraction of the design should be the key points, while all the other details, like color, scale and balance, serve as the proverbial focus which enhances the focus of the area. Modern interior designers strategically use this principle to emphasize various areas in mansions to create a combined look.

The unity principle affirms the need to align and complement one other in order to create a sustainable harmony of design, balance, scale, rhythm and focus. Unity emphasizes the need to see the design as a whole consisting of a number of aesthetic schemes to achieve uniformity from the colors to the designs.

Basic building blocks of good design

Good interior design
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There are the basic building blocks that form interior design or for that matter artwork. The subtleties and elegance of interior design are to be appreciated and expounded upon pushing these principles to the limits.

You can transform any space to look fabulous when you know the basic principles of interior design. When you go into a well designed room, you know what it feels like. You can feel how cohesive and cohesive everything is. It feels good. In your own home, you can achieve this with a little knowledge of fundamental concepts. Pair this knowledge and experience and you are on the way to a lovely home.

Good interior design

Did you know that a beautifully decorated interior not only works well, it also creates a mood or feeling and shows off the personality of the family that lives there. It is attention to these three important ingredients such as function, mood and personality that ensure successful decoration.

One good idea is to think about your family and how you live before painting and rearranging. Look for inspiration in magazines and draw your ideas or spaces. Gather stuff from around the house that makes you feel good and carefully study it with color clues and perhaps an indication of the mood you want in your house. This is the start of a well-designed, decorated living room.

What's the focus? 

Interior natural focal points
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Sometimes the rooms have natural focal points or the eyes go into a room, like a fireplace, a lagoon or a bookcase, right after entering. You can always create a space with a colorful area rug or a dynamic piece of art if the room has no natural focal point.

For room functions as well as for visual appeal, lighting should be selected. Each task requires direct illumination from a lamp or indirect lights to just shed light on the conversation room or watch the TV. Accent lighting, track lighting or recessed lighting will improve texture, color and details in the room.

Color choices

Interior color choices
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Your color choices, furnishings, texture and designs and your accessories create the mood and feeling in a room. Since there is so much to reflect on when a mood is being created, a theme can be made much more fun and interesting through the selection of an inspirational piece.

Discovering from an inspiration source is by far the easiest way. There is a decorative magazine photo. Choose your piece of inspiration wisely and ensure that when you look it you feel good. This is the basis for choosing your subject, colors, designs, and textures.


Interior room theme
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The theme should always be supported by color. Often, your inspirational piece contains the colors that are best suited to it. In general, three colors in a room can be chosen: the dominant color, used for walls and background tapestries; the secondary color found in fabrics and accessories throughout the room; and the accent color, used in a sparing fashion for the space's energy and excitement.

Too many smooth, shiny or nubby things become tired rustic texture. To keep the room interesting, use the variety. A pattern can also be used as a texture. Many prints appear dimensional and thus add depth to a decorative design.

Photos, vases, pillows and even teapots are all components of a great decorative plan. Teapots? Well yes, them too. They should generally support your theme, but they should give it more flexible; an antique frame could make a contemporary room more versatile. The accessories can be paintings, photographs or pillows, on walls, cabinets, furniture, tabletops, and floors.

Design summary

Art and design elements and principles are the basis of the language of art. The elements of art are the visual instruments used by the artist for composing. Line, form, color, value, form, texture and space are these.

In a painting, the artist decides what art principles he or she wants to use. While an artist could not use all design principles in one piece, the principles are interconnected and the use of one often depends on another. Thus, one art principle can influence another effect and impact.

I would love to read your thoughts. How have you applied these principles? What worked and what didn't? Please comment below. Thanks

Is Wall Art Is the Most Important Element In Interior Design?

Wall art is always an afterthought in most home interiors. After the wall has been painted and after the furniture has been placed and artfully arranged artwork finally gets hung on the walls. Well, maybe. Many times purchasing wall art and designing a homes interior is not even thought about at all. But by leaving wall art to the last item on the list are you missing out on a fantastic design opportunity? Many will answer yes and say wall art matters the most in interior design. When chosen correctly it can be the décor for the entire room.

Did you know Candace Wheeler altered the course of textile and interior design in nineteenth-century America and was a driving force behind women's professionalization in the art of design. Candace created lovely but also inexpensive and practical fabrics for use in middle-class households.

However, don't worry if you are a little nervous about giving wall art such an important role in your interior decorating plans. Use this article as a guide to select the right decor that fit your space and thus you will have a harmonious interior Claude Monet or Lady Mendl would be envious of.

An Instant Color Palette Is Created by Wall Art

Important elements in interior design starts with wall art design
Important elements in design
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Choosing a color palette can be one of the most daunting aspects of designing your interiors. The varying shades of paint available in your local home improvement store can seem unlimited. It can be difficult to narrow the possibilities into the colors that best suit your vision for space.

The best advice is to leave the paint chips behind and instead focus on wall art. Once you find a painting or a wall that you love, you can use this piece as an inspiration for the eventual color palette of your room.

Your first step is to choose two or three shades of wall art that you want to incorporate into your decor. Choose the dominant color as well as some additional shades that you would like to accentuate. Then look for the colors in the items you use to decorate your room.

A Focal Point Is Created by Wall Art

One of the most fundamental principles of interior design is that each room requires a focus. A single design element that immediately gives the viewer a sense of what to expect. It goes without saying that this position can easily be achieved by a large piece of wall art.

Imagine your favorite artwork in your master suite standing proudly or hanging over a fireplace in your living room. A more traditional dining area can be spiced up easily by a creative wall in a gallery or a few tapestries can make a cozy feeling in a sitting area.

The most important consideration when choosing the piece of wall art as the focus of your space is its size. An art piece that is too small is dwarfed by the furniture around, and a piece that is too large appears to overflow. Make sure the wall space available is measured so you know how much space you have.

Texture Is Added By Hanging Wall Art

Remember, not all wall art is the same. While some pieces may be two- dimensional or similar, you should try to find art in a number of different mediums in order to bring a different sense of texture into space.

You should also consider items such as sculptures or shade boxes that can add depth to the room as well as paintings and printings. If your style favors experimental or unusual ideas, a short mixed media installation with screens and digital art might be considered.

These extra parts of texture can help your interiors add much needed visual weight to determine the tone of the room or how it feels. Consider that rough textures make a space feel more intimate and grounded, while smooth textures give the room a sleeker, more detached tone.

Wall Art Adds the Finishing Touches to a Room

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Think about some of the smaller interiors you've seen. Maybe a college or first apartment. It is odd that these spaces felt a bit rough around the edges and unfinished a little. Odds are they also mainly had white walls.

Wall art is the finishing element that can help to connect and make a space feel complete. This little extra touch can take your space from simply looking functional to appearing like an interior design magazine's pages.

The key is to choose an art piece or another wall that matches the decorative style you have already chosen for your room. After that, it's all about choosing the decor that you love and you'll be happy to see your wall hang on for many years.

When you decorate a new space, Wall Art does not have to be the last piece of the puzzle. Actually, it shouldn't be. Wall art is most important in our minds when it comes to interior design. This is because when properly used, your wall hangings can provide an excellent framework to plan the rest of the room.

Follow the steps outlined in this article on how to select and incorporate wall art properly in your interior and you end in a professional design.

Modern Art the Movement

Modern Art Famous Painters Movements and Styles
Famous Painters
Modern art includes artistic work produced in the period between the 1860s and the 1970s, and refers to the movements and styles of art produced during that period. The term modern is usually associated with art, in which the traditions of the past (movements and styles) were cast aside in an experimental spirit. Modern artists have been experimenting with new ways of seeing and new ideas about the nature of art materials and functions. More about the artists movement and styles: The Artist

A tendency toward abstraction away from the narrative, which was characteristic of traditional art, is characteristic of much modern wall art. New art production is often referred to as contemporary art or post-modern art. For more information please see: International and modern contemporary art - exhibitions, free displays and events daily.

The birth of modernism and modern art can be traced back to the revolution of the industry. This period of rapid changes in production, transport and technology began around the middle of the eighteenth century and lasted through the nineteenth century, profoundly affecting the social, economic and cultural conditions of life in Western Europe, North America and the world. One of my favorite to visit: The TIME Magazine Modern Art - Archive Collection presents editor picks of the best covers and articles.

New transport forms, including the railroad, the steam engine and the metro, changed the way people lived, worked and traveled, broadened their worldview and gained access to new ideas. With the development of urban centers, workers flocked to cities for industrial jobs and urban populations.

Movement and style in modern art

Modern art begins with the heritage of painters such as Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse- Lautrec, who were all essential to modern art.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Henri Matisse and several other young artists, including the pre- Cubist Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Jean Metzinger and Maurice de Vlaminck, revolutionized the art world of Paris with wild, multicolored, expressive landscapes and figure paintings known as Fauvism by critics.

The two versions of Matisse's The Dance represented an important point in his career and the development of modern painting. It reflected Matisse's early fascination with primitive art: the intense warm color of the figures against the cool blue - green background and the rhythmic succession of the dancing nudes convey the emotional liberation and hedonism feelings.

Before the 19th century, artists were most often commissioned by wealthy patrons or institutions such as the church to create artworks. Much of this art depicted religious or mythological scenes telling stories to teach the viewer.

In the 19th century, many artists began to create art based on their own personal experiences and themes they selected. With the publication of the psychologist Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) and the popularization of the idea of an unconscious mind, many artists began to explore dreams, symbolism and personal iconography as a way to portray their subjective experiences.

Challenging the idea that art must represent the world in a realistic way, some artists have experimented with the expressive use of color, nontraditional materials and new techniques and media. Among these new mediums was photography, the invention of which offered radical possibilities for representing and interpreting the world in 1839.

Initially influenced by Toulouse- Lautrec, Gauguin and other innovators of the late 19th century, Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on the idea of Cézanne that all representations of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone.

Weepin Woman modern art style and movement
Weeping Woman
Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture with the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism was developed jointly by Picasso and Georges Braque, illustrated by Violin and Candlestick, Paris,
between 1908 and 1912.

In the 1920s, analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by synthetic cubism by Braque, Picasso, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and a number of other artists. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of various textures, surfaces, collage elements, paper collé and a wide range of fused subjects.

What are the characteristics of modern art movements?

Modern art is the same as contemporary art. At least that's how the Modern Art Museum categorizes these terms.
Modern necessarily doesn't mean contemporary. Modern art is more closely related to the philosophical movement of modernism.

What is "modernism" style?

This movement emerged in the western world during the industrial revolution of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A new socio economic and political climate was emerging in view of the rapid growth of the cities. Modernism viewed traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy and social organization as outdated in this landscape.

Modernism rejected the assurance of the thinking of enlightenment, and many modernists rejected religion. The self - consciousness and the rejection of the ideology of realism are an important feature of this movement. Themes of recovery, incorporation, rewriting, parody, revision and recapitulation are common in much modernism inspired by art and literature.

What are the different types of modern art movements and styles?

With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the 19th century, new art styles and movements emerged and disappeared more and more rapidly, reflecting the increasing rate of change in our society. Here's a short overview of major movements of modern art from impressionism to Op Art.

Modern Art Movements

The most significant movements of modern art from the end of the 19th to the end of the 20th century are as follows:

  • Expressionism 
  • Art Nouveau 
  • Art Deco 
  • Cubism 
  • Surrealism 
  • Abstract Art 
  • Pop Art 8. Op Art


Modern art’s history began with impressionism. Everything began in Paris as a reaction to a very formal and rigid painting style- made in studios and set up by traditional institutions such as the Academy of Beaux- Arts in Paris.

The exhibition of the famous painting of Edouard Manet, Dejeuner sur l'herbe, in 1863 at the Salon des Refuses (organized by those painters who were rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts) caused a scandal. It can be seen as the start of impressionism.

The Impressionist painters preferred painting outside and studied light effects on objects. Their favorite topics were landscapes and daily life scenes. Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro and Pierre Auguste Renoir in France and Alfred Sisley in England are the most well-known names in Impressionist painting.


The term Fauvism is derived from the French word fauve, meaning wild animals. This new style of modern art was a little wild with strong and lively colors. Paul Gauguin and the Netherlands painter Vincent van Gogh used expressive colors to bring Impressionism to its limits.

Fauvism took a step further in combining simplified designs with an orgy of colors characterized by their critics. Fauvist artists ' first exhibition was held in 1905. Henri Matisse, Andre Derain, Maurice de Vlaminch, Kees van Dongen, and Raoul Dufy are the most famous fauve artists.

Expressionism was, in a simplified sense, a modern German version of the Fauvism. The movement of expressionists was organized into two groups of German painters. The group of artists Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, Otto Müller and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff was based in Dresden.

The second Expressionist artists gathering were in Munich. The band is called Der Blaue Reiter, which means The Blue Rider. Franz Marc, August Macke, Gabriele Münter, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Alexei Yavlensky are well- known names.

Art Nouveau Movement

Art Nouveau means new art, French. Its highly decorative style and its dedication to natural forms are characteristic. Art Nouveau was a popular art movement between 1880 and 1910. It was named by the Germans Jugendstil, the Italians Liberty, the Austrians Secessionsstil and the young Spanish art. Art Nouveau was not limited only to painting and printing. It included all art forms, architecture, furniture, jewelry, glass and illustration.

Fine examples of Art Nouveau are the Paris subway entrances, the glass works of Emille Galle and Louis Comfort Tiffany in the USA or the Alphonse Mucha posters. Gustav Klimt is a famous painter. Art Nouveau did not survive World War I, perhaps due to the high prices of objects in Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau was nothing for mass production with its philosophical roots in high - quality craftsmanship.

Art Deco Movement

Art decoration was primarily a design style, famous in the 1920s and 1930s. The Art Deco movement can, in simplified terms, be regarded as the Art Nouveau style that is simpler and closer to mass production.

Mode, furniture, jewelry, textiles, architecture, commercial printing and interior decoration dominated the Art Deco movement. René Lalique, a jeweler and glass-maker, is the most famous name. The Chrysler building in 1930 in New York is an example of the architectural style of Art Deco.


Cubism, another movement of modern art, was mainly confined to painting and sculpture. It nevertheless had a major influence on modern art. Cubism was initiated in Paris before the First World War by the Spaniard Pablo Picasso and the Frenchman Georges Braques. Paul Cezanne, who is usually classified as a post-impressionist, can be regarded as his predecessor.

In African tribal art, cubism had strong roots. Geometric forms and fragmentation are favored in cubism. It's all reduced to cubes and other geometric shapes. Many aspects of one subject are shown simultaneously. Not only Pablo Picasso and Georges Braques, but also Robert Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Juan Gris and Lyonel Feininger are renowned artists. Abstract art paved the way for Cubism.


Surrealism is one of the many movements of modern art in the 20th century. His philosophical dad was Andre Breton, a French poet and writer who published in 1924 in Paris the Surrealist Guidelines Manifesto.

Surrealism stresses the unconscious, the significance of dreams and the psychological aspect of the arts. Surrealism has become a major movement in Spaniard Bunuel’s fine arts, literature and films.
The best- known names for the fine arts are Salvador Dali, the Italian Giorgio de Chirico with his weird and bizarre views of the city, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Yves Tanguy, Rene Margritte and the Russian Marc Chagall.

Abstract Art

It is said that the Russian born painter Wassily Kandinsky is the father of abstract art. If you want to visit Munich, don't miss a visit to the Lenbachhaus Museum. It displays many Wassily Kandinsky paintings and you can see very well how his style developed from time to time to semi - abstract and then to abstract painting.

Another dominant feature in the establishment of abstract painting is Piet Mondrian, a Dutch painter. In Paris, Mondrian had experienced cubism. During the Second World War, many leading artists, such as Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall, immigrated to the USA. New York has thus become a new center for contemporary art and abstract art.

Pop Art Movement

Pop Art is a popular art abbreviation. The name says everything. The Pop Art movement wanted to bring art back into people's daily lives. It was a reaction to abstract painting considered by pop artists to be too sophisticated and elite. The favorite images of pop artists were everyday objects such as Andy Warhol soup cans or Roy Lichtenstein comics.

Andy Warhol 's use of serigraphy, a photo- realistic, mass production technique of printmaking, was typical of the attitude of the Pop Art movement. Pop Art fell into the media and advertisements. Differences between fine arts and commercial arts have been torn down voluntarily.

Examples are the music album cover designs of the 1960s. Andy Warhol was the undoubted cultural figure of Pop Art between 1928 and 1987. Jaspar Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, David Hockney, Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein, Georg Segal, Wayne and James Rosenquist are also well-known names. The Pop Art Movement was primarily a movement of American and British art.

Op Art Movement

It was Op Art after Pop Art, a short form for optical art. Op Art expressed itself in reduced geometric shapes, sometimes in black and white contrasts and sometimes in brilliant colors. The most prominent artist is Vasarely, born in Hungary.

In the 1970s, Op Art even developed into fashion design. But Op Art has never managed to become a popular modern art mass movement like Pop Art.

Who is the father of modern art? What was the style?

Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne, an oil painter from France, became the first artist of his generation to deliberately and successfully break away from Impressionism in the late 19th century. Cézanne was a precursor to Picasso's cubism, and his work became a catalyst for 20th century abstract art.

His earlier work tended to be darker and more roughly painted, but we still see the development of some of his personal style. For example, in the above detail of his painting Skull and Candlestick, you can see dark outlines around many of the objects, a feature that in most of his later works remained to some extent.

Cézanne did not want to paint like the Impressionists throughout his life; his work was too loose and chaotic for him. At the same time, however, the idea of painting classically structured works, like the Renaissance work, did not attract him.

In the end, Cézanne found a balance between the two creating solidly anchored forms and figures, using the bold and vivid colors of the Impressionists. He was also prepared to sacrifice an accurate representation of reality if the painting was strengthened.

Cézanne has been successful in all genres in landscapes and portraits, as well as in the still life work for which he is best known. Mont Sainte- Victoire is one of his many paintings around his home, with cubic houses and large, round trees.

Although the structures and figures of Cézanne differed greatly from the Impressionists, he certainly plunged into their palette.
With dark shadows to hold the shape of his subject, Cézanne put in his paintings brushstrokes of purple, green and bright reds. They don't fit the skin tone, but Cézanne, like the Impressionists, created a sense of immediacy by using vivid colors.

This painting, Still life with Plaster Cupid, Cézanne ignored the physical space to create a dynamically interesting composition.
he plaster cupid was perfect for the cold blues and greens of Cézanne, while Cézanne's rounded anatomy reflected the scattered onions and apples. The amount of light and darkness in the painting is perfectly balanced, and I love how the whole painting is energized by the many strong diagonals it contains.

The work of Cézanne always ignores the rules of color or changes on the fly the perspective. His paintings, however, are still wonderful, solid and truly incredible.

Additional information on modern art movements and styles

National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), the premier institute in the country that houses modern and contemporary Indian art

The term "Modern Art" has no precise definition it is still an elastic term that can contain a variety of meanings. This is not too surprising, as we are constantly moving forward in time, and what is now considered "modern painting" or "modern sculpture" may not be considered modern in 50 years. Characteristics of modern art

Modern art includes works of art created between the late 19th and the 1970s, which are characterized by the rejection of traditional concepts and techniques of art. This rejection of past traditions has led to a variety of art movements, including Expressionism, Abstract Art, Cubism, Futurism, Dada, Surrealism and Conceptual Art, to name but a few. Many of them have been of short duration but have had a lasting influence on the later developments, including modern art. Examples of modern art

Types of modern art

Postmodern art is a body of art movements which seek to contradict certain aspects of modernism or aspects which emerged or developed afterwards. In general, movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedia are described as postmodern, in particular video. Postmodern art

The truth about modern art